(HA) Volcanic Phenomena Suite -- The Hawaiian Islands of Hawaii and Oahu

Title

(HA) Volcanic Phenomena Suite -- The Hawaiian Islands of Hawaii and Oahu

Identifier

HA-1 - HA-31

Description

These 31 samples comprise a collection of volcanic rocks associated with the hot-spot volcanism of the Hawaiian Islands. Samples were collected from various locations across the islands of Hawaii and Oahu. The collection contains samples of primarily tholeiitic & alkalic basalts, pumice, scoria, oceanite, and hawaiite.

Date

1969

Contributor

Western Minerals, Inc.

Spatial Coverage

Samples were collected from various locations on the islands of Hawaii and Oahu.

Temporal Coverage

Samples formed from Holocene eruptions of the past 300 years. Dated samples formed between 1750 and 1960.

Accrual Method

Purchased from Western Minerals, Inc.

References

Start here:
Macdonald, G.A., 1949, Petrography of the Island of Hawaii, U.S.G.S. Prof. Paper 214 D

  • This article is a part of the general investigation of the island of Hawaii by the United States Geologic Survey. The paper describes the dominant volcanoes of the island of Hawaii (from which most of the suite's samples were collected) and describes the petrographic phenomena observed and geochemical analyses of volcanic rocks. 

Additional Resources:
Ho, R.A., Garcia, M.O., 1988, Origin of differentiated lavas at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii; implications from the 1955 eruption: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 50, p. 35-46.

  • This article describes a study of lava flows from the 1955 eruption of the Kilauea Volcano on the island of Hawaii to evaluate models of crystal fractionation or magma mixing as the processes forming differentiated magmas. Through geochemical analyses, the study concluded that crystal fractionation resulted in the observed differentiation of lavas.


Hofman, A.W., Farnetani, C.G., 2013, Two Views of Hawaiian Plume Structure: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v.14, p. 5308-5322, doi:10.1002/2013GC004942

  • This article presents two opposing views of the source of magmas for the Hawaiian volcanoes. Both views favor a deep mantle source, but try to explain differences in isotopic compositions.


Macdonald, G.A., 1968, Composition and origin of Hawaiian Lavas in GSA Memoirs 1968, p. 477-522

  • This article provides geochemical analysis of major elements as well as determinations of minor elements of volcanic rocks from the island of Hawaii. The article describes the three major rock types - tholeitic, alkalic, and nephelinic - and concludes these rock suites are chemically intergradational and are likely derived from crystal differentiation of a single parent magma.


Moore, J.G., Clague, D.A., 1992, Volcano growth and evolution of the Island of Hawaii: Geologic Society of America Bulletin, v. 104, p. 1471-1484

  • This article proposes a chronologic evolution of the island of Hawaii, from where many of the suite's samples were collected.

Collection Items

OCR RPD of supplemental information for the Volcanic Phenomena Suite - The Hawaiian Islands of Hawaii and Oahu

Tholeiitic Basalt
Hand Sample: Aphanitic vesicular dark gray-black basalt. Sample contains numerous vesicles ranging in size from 0.01cm to 1.5 cm.

Tholeiitic Basalt
Hand Sample: Apahanitic vesicular dark gray-black basalt. Larger (

Volcanic Bomb
Hand Sample: Imperfect volcanic bomb. Aphanitic with reddish brown color. Observed mudcrack texture of surface likely formed due to weathering. Sample contains abundant vesicles (< 0.05cm in size).

Basaltic Spatter
Hand Sample: On cut face, aphanitic, gray basalt with light colored phaneritic crystals (~0.1 cm in size). Subparallel fractures noted across sample. Exterior of sample has been heavily weathered, resulting in the red and orange discoloration.

Pumice
Hand Sample: Glassy, dark gray, vesicular pumice. The sample contains many small pieces of the pumice, ranging from 0.03cm to 1.5cm in diameter. Chunks of glassy pumice and volcanic ash compose sample.

Iridescent Pahoehoe
Hand Sample: Dark gray, vesicular, glassy sample. Sample surface has a ropey texture with vesicles ranging from 0.01cm to 2.5cm in diameter. Sample has an iridescent luster on unweathered surfaces.

Tholeiitic Olivine Basalt
Hand Sample: Aphanitic medium gray vesicular basalt with scattered olivine crystals. Olivine crystals are scattered throughout the sample and are either growing in clusters or as single crystals. Olivine crystals range in size from 0.05cm to 0.5cm in…

Oceanite
Hand Sample: Aphanitic dark gray vesicular oceanite with phaneritic olivine crystals. Olivine crystals are scattered throughout the sample and are either growing in clusters or as a single crystal. Olivine crystals range in diameter from 0.1cm to…

Alkalic Olivine Basalt
Hand Sample: Aphanitic, light-gray alkalic olivine basalt. Sample contains abundant phenocrysts of feldspar, olivine, and augite. Phenocrysts range in diameter from 0.1cm to 0.5cm. Many of the phenocrysts in sample have an iridescent luster. Sample…

Alkalic Olivine Basalt
Hand Sample: Aphanitic, light gray alkalic olivine basalt. Sample contains abundant feldspar phenocrysts ranging in diameter from 0.1cm to 0.9cm in length. Phenocrysts are generally blocky in shape. Occasional vesicles throughout sample ranging in…

Hawaiite
Hand Sample: Aphanitic light gray hawaiite with inclusions containing numerous vesicles. Inclusions are darker in color with abundant vesicles less than 0.01cm in diameter. The surface of the sample is heavily weathered, resulting in sample's tan…

Tholeiitic Basalt
Hand Sample: Aphanitic vesicular dark gray-black basalt with larger light crystals throughout the sample. The vesicles throughout the sample are elongate in shape, and range in size from 0.5 cm to 2.5 cm. Sample surface displays rough AA texture.

Tholeiitic Basalt
Hand Sample: Aphanitic dark gray vesicular basalt. Basalt has ropey pahoehoe texture on top surface and contains numerous elongated vesicles.

Tholeiitic Basalt
Hand Sample: Aphanitic medium gray vesicular basalt with scattered olivine crystals. Olivine crystals are commonly growing either in clusters or as one single crystal. Vesicles are found throughout sample and range in diameter from 0.05cm to 2cm.

Clinkery aa
Hand Sample: Apahanitic, vesicular, dark gray-black basalt. Olivine crystals are scattered throughout the sample and are approx. 0.05cm in diameter. Vesicles are very predominant throughout the sample and range in diameter from 0.01 cm to 1.5 cm This…

Oceanite
Hand Sample: Aphanitic dark gray vesicular basalt with olivine crystals scattered throughout. The olivine crystals are most common in this sample than in other samples within the suite. Sample was collected from an olivine-rich zone within Mauna Loa…

Tholeiitic Basalt
Hand Sample: Aphanitic dark gray vesicular basalt. The vesicles are uniform and common throughout the sample, with diameters of approx. 0.05 cm.

Trachyte
Trachytes are an igneous volcanic rock with an aphanitic or porphyritic texture. Alkali feldspar, low amounts of plagioclase and quartz or a feldspathoid are common in trachytes.

Ankaramite
Ankaramites are dark porphyritic basalts that contain abundant pyroxene and olivine phenocrysts. Lesser amounts of biotite, and plagioclase may also be present.
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