(HA) Volcanic Phenomena Suite -- The Hawaiian Islands of Hawaii and Oahu

Title

(HA) Volcanic Phenomena Suite -- The Hawaiian Islands of Hawaii and Oahu

Identifier

HA-1 - HA-31

Description

These 31 samples comprise a collection of volcanic rocks associated with the hot-spot volcanism of the Hawaiian Islands. Samples were collected from various locations across the islands of Hawaii and Oahu. The collection contains samples of primarily tholeiitic & alkalic basalts, pumice, scoria, oceanite, and hawaiite.

Date

1969

Contributor

Western Minerals, Inc.

Spatial Coverage

Samples were collected from various locations on the islands of Hawaii and Oahu.

Temporal Coverage

Samples formed from Holocene eruptions of the past 300 years. Dated samples formed between 1750 and 1960.

Accrual Method

Purchased from Western Minerals, Inc.

References

Start here:
Macdonald, G.A., 1949, Petrography of the Island of Hawaii, U.S.G.S. Prof. Paper 214 D

  • This article is a part of the general investigation of the island of Hawaii by the United States Geologic Survey. The paper describes the dominant volcanoes of the island of Hawaii (from which most of the suite's samples were collected) and describes the petrographic phenomena observed and geochemical analyses of volcanic rocks. 

Additional Resources:
Ho, R.A., Garcia, M.O., 1988, Origin of differentiated lavas at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii; implications from the 1955 eruption: Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 50, p. 35-46.

  • This article describes a study of lava flows from the 1955 eruption of the Kilauea Volcano on the island of Hawaii to evaluate models of crystal fractionation or magma mixing as the processes forming differentiated magmas. Through geochemical analyses, the study concluded that crystal fractionation resulted in the observed differentiation of lavas.


Hofman, A.W., Farnetani, C.G., 2013, Two Views of Hawaiian Plume Structure: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v.14, p. 5308-5322, doi:10.1002/2013GC004942

  • This article presents two opposing views of the source of magmas for the Hawaiian volcanoes. Both views favor a deep mantle source, but try to explain differences in isotopic compositions.


Macdonald, G.A., 1968, Composition and origin of Hawaiian Lavas in GSA Memoirs 1968, p. 477-522

  • This article provides geochemical analysis of major elements as well as determinations of minor elements of volcanic rocks from the island of Hawaii. The article describes the three major rock types - tholeitic, alkalic, and nephelinic - and concludes these rock suites are chemically intergradational and are likely derived from crystal differentiation of a single parent magma.


Moore, J.G., Clague, D.A., 1992, Volcano growth and evolution of the Island of Hawaii: Geologic Society of America Bulletin, v. 104, p. 1471-1484

  • This article proposes a chronologic evolution of the island of Hawaii, from where many of the suite's samples were collected.

Items in the (HA) Volcanic Phenomena Suite -- The Hawaiian Islands of Hawaii and Oahu Collection

OCR RPD of supplemental information for the Volcanic Phenomena Suite - The Hawaiian Islands of Hawaii and Oahu

Rhyodacite
Hand Sample: Aphanitic, pink-black rhyodacite. Sample contains alternating black and dark pink bands across face. Sample does not contain any vesicles or phenocrysts.

Melilite Nephelinite
Hand Sample: Aphanitic light gray nephelinite containing some melilite. Melilite is the white minerals that range in size from 0.1 to 0.5cm. Sample contains numerous small sized (less than 0.05cm) vesicles that are evident on the cut face.

Nephelinite
Hand Sample: Aphanitic medium gray nephlenite. White intergrowth crystals are common throughout the sample and form long strands (approx. 0.6 - 1cm in length) on sides of sample. Sample contains some melilite.

Alkalic Olivine Basalt
Hand Sample: Aphanitic dark gray vesicular basalt. Vesicles are common throughout sample and range in size from 0.1 to 3.5cm in diameter. Individual olivine crystals are found throughout the sample and range in size from 0.1 to 0.4cm in length.

Alkalic Olivine Basalt
Hand Sample: Aphanitic dark gray vesicular basalt. Sample contains numerous vesicles ranging in size from less than 0.05cm to 1.5cm. Individual olivine crystals can also be found throughout the sample.

Scoria
Hand Sample: Microcrystalline vesicular, dark-gray to black scoria. Vesicle size varies throughout the sample, ranging from larger circular vesicles with a diameter of approx. 1.5 cm on one surface and small vesicles (less than 0.1cm in diameter) on…

Peridotite/Dunite
Hand Sample: Natural surface of sample is dark in color with smooth texture. Cut face reveals blocks of peridotite and dunite held together with a thin layer of lava cement. Sample has high specific gravity.

Lapilli Tuff
Hand Sample: Lapilli tuff containing pieces of pumice (HA-23) and trachyte obsidian (HA-22) ranging in size from 0.1cm to 1.5cm. Clasts are held together in light-colored ash. Sample surface crumbles when handled. Lapilli describes the size of the…

Pumice
Hand Sample: Aphanitic light gray vesicular pumice. Sample has incredibly low specific gravity due to abundant vesicles. Vesicles range in size from less than 0.1cm to 0.3cm. Some vesicles on cut face appear to be filled in with a lighter material.…

Trachyte Obsidian
Hand Sample: Aphanitic dark gray trachyte. Sample contains zones with abundant tiny vesicles (less than 0.1cm in diameter), however the majority of the sample does not contain any vesicles or phenocrysts.

Alkalic Olivine Basalt
Hand Sample: Aphanitic light gray vesicular basalt with large olivine crystals. Olivine phenocrysts range in size from single crystals approx. 0.1cm in diameter to clusters of olivine as large as 1cm in diameter. Vesicles throughout the sample are…

Hawaiite
Hand Sample: Aphanitic light gray hawaiite. Sample contains sparse vesicles that are generally 0.1cm or less in diameter.

Ankaramite
Ankaramites are dark porphyritic basalts that contain abundant pyroxene and olivine phenocrysts. Lesser amounts of biotite, and plagioclase may also be present.

Trachyte
Trachytes are an igneous volcanic rock with an aphanitic or porphyritic texture. Alkali feldspar, low amounts of plagioclase and quartz or a feldspathoid are common in trachytes.

Tholeiitic Basalt
Hand Sample: Aphanitic dark gray vesicular basalt. The vesicles are uniform and common throughout the sample, with diameters of approx. 0.05 cm.

Oceanite
Hand Sample: Aphanitic dark gray vesicular basalt with olivine crystals scattered throughout. The olivine crystals are most common in this sample than in other samples within the suite. Sample was collected from an olivine-rich zone within Mauna Loa…

Clinkery aa
Hand Sample: Apahanitic, vesicular, dark gray-black basalt. Olivine crystals are scattered throughout the sample and are approx. 0.05cm in diameter. Vesicles are very predominant throughout the sample and range in diameter from 0.01 cm to 1.5 cm This…

Tholeiitic Basalt
Hand Sample: Aphanitic medium gray vesicular basalt with scattered olivine crystals. Olivine crystals are commonly growing either in clusters or as one single crystal. Vesicles are found throughout sample and range in diameter from 0.05cm to 2cm.

Tholeiitic Basalt
Hand Sample: Aphanitic dark gray vesicular basalt. Basalt has ropey pahoehoe texture on top surface and contains numerous elongated vesicles.

Collection Tree